Everything You Need to Know About Biochemical Tests

August 17, 2020 by AMA Diagnostic0
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Biochemical Tests studies are used to classify bacterial organisms by using biochemical processes to distinguish them. Some factors that help in bacterial identification are the difference in protein and fat metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, enzyme output, compound utilization capacity, etc.

Biochemical tests help to distinguish higher plants and animals on the basis of structural external and internal variations. In structural observations that are not visible to naked eyes or even under the microscope, these tests are done. There are several bacterial species that share similarities in size, shape, etc. and can only be distinguished by detection. There are several bacterial organisms that share similarities in size, form, etc. and can be identified only by detecting certain properties that can be recognized using biochemical testing.

Some Biochemical Studies

All bacterial organisms have a specific collection of metabolic activates regulated by bacterial enzymes. These bacterial enzymes determine the type of test that is appropriate for recognizing structural differences and metabolic activity.

Intracellular Enzymes

Intracellular enzymes operate internally and are responsible for synthesizing new bacterial protoplasmic substances. They allow simple substances to pass through the cell membrane and produce cellular energy which helps to use these cellular substances. Many of such enzyme-based experiments include:

  1. Oxidase Test

Aerobic bacteria also possess cytochrome C and a cytochrome C oxidase. The test uses filter paper applied by oxidase reagent, the timely change of colour of which indicates the result’s positivity.

  1. Indole Test

Bacteria with an enzyme tryptophan can hydrolyse to form indole, ammonia, and pyruvic acid with amino acid tryptophan. The timely changing of colour during the test decides the test ‘s effectiveness.

  1. Catalase Test

Many aerobic bacteria produce an enzyme known as catalase which detoxifies peroxide to hydrogen. Test positivity is measured by the creation of gas (O2) in the form of bubbles.

  1. Other tests include the Vogus-Proskeur test (VP test), the methyl red test, the triple iron sugar test, the litmus milk test, etc.

Enzymes Extracellular

The bacterial cells secrete these enzymes, and they work outside of the cells. They are synthesized inside the cell and after secretion assist in the breakdown of complex macromolecules into smaller units. Such smaller weight substances can then permeate the cell membrane and use it by intracellular activity.

Some samples of an extracellular enzyme include:

  1. DNase Test

Many bacterial species contain an enzyme called DNase which may hydrolyse DNA. The existence of DNase can be determined by cultivation on the DNA-containing agar plate.

Many studies investigating extracellular enzymes include the test for gelatinase, the test for starch hydrolysis, and the test for lipid hydrolysis.

  1. Coagulase Test

Some bacteria produce enzymes known as coagulase which converts fibrinogen into fibrin, meaning it can coagulate plasma. This shows the positivity of the test during the procedure if coagulate plasma and coagulate remain intact and undissolved.

Biochemical testing is one of the most effective microbial identification techniques because it reduces time and expense to ensure precision in the detection of unknown samples, including in home sample collection lucknow. You can find these tests available in the list of complete body check-up in Lucknow.


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